ST Engineering STROBO Series 12 Bus – Autonomous Electric Bus

STROBO Series 12 Bus
STROBO Series 12
STROBO Series 12 Bus
Manufacturer ST Engineering / Linkker
Bodywork Linkker
Gemilang Coachworks
Years in operation 2018–
Operators ST Engineering (R&D use)
Technical Data
Length 12 metre
Powertrain Linkker LinkDrive (TBC)
Accessibility Low Floor
Emissions Zero tailpipe emissions

The STROBO Series 12 Bus is a low-floor, autonomous and fully-electric single-deck city bus built by ST Engineering Land Systems (formerly ST Kinetics) in partnership with Finnish electric vehicle manufacturer Linkker, and equipped for fully-autonomous operation.

The bus is charged primarily via the OppCharge opportunity charging interface, with a range of roughly 50 kilometres. More information about OppCharge is detailed at the end of the article.

The STROBO Series 12 was first revealed in October 2018 by ST Engineering at a company event (Singapore Business Night) held at Singapore Expo. In October 2019, the bus was exhibited at the 26th Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) World Congress, with the “STROBO” branding and with the Research and Development registration plate “RD3165D“.

This bus is one of two full-sized autonomous buses being developed by ST Engineering, and has been tested on public roads within Jurong Island. Public road trials for both buses would be underway by mid-2020.

Background Information:

Main Article: ST Engineering-Linkker Autonomous Electric Bus

On 10 April 2017, ST Kinetics (now ST Engineering Land Systems) announced that it will develop Autonomous Vehicle (AV) technologies and integrate them into two 40-seater electric buses. These prototype vehicles would undergo a three-and-a-half-year period of road trials expected to begin in mid-2020, with potential test grounds being Jurong Island and the National University of Singapore (NUS)’ campus. The eventual goal was to develop autonomous buses capable of running fixed and scheduled bus services for intra- and inter-town travel.

ST Engineering Land Systems’ STROBO portfolio brand of autonomous bus platforms was unveiled at the ITS World Congress 2019 in Singapore. Designed to meet urban traffic requirements and weather conditions, the STROBO Bus will offer customers more choices based on their operational requirements. The project is the result of collaborative efforts by the Singapore Autonomous Vehicle Research Consortium, which ST Engineering is part of, along with the Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R), National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore University of Technology and Design.

Starting in late 2018/early 2019, the STROBO Series 12 Bus embarked on road trials in Jurong Island, plying an extended route between Sakra Region and Jurong Island Checkpoint until early 2020, validating the techn. Following that, two of these autonomous buses (likely the STROBO Series 12 Bus and the Linkker 12+) would then undergo further operational trials that will demonstrate their ability to provide selected feeder and trunk bus services in Singapore.

The development and testing of the autonomous buses will aim to cover as many scenarios faced by bus feeder services as possible, to deepen understanding on the current state of the technology and to prepare for eventual full-scale operations in the future when the technology matures. In the longer term, it is envisaged that the trial could be extended to public roads in towns to enhance intra-town travel.

See Also: Autonomous Buses in Singapore

ST Engineering STROBO Series 12 Autonomous Electric Bus (Gemilang Coachworks):

Basic Technical Specifications (STROBO Series 12)
Vehicle Type
  • Single Deck Bus
  • Full Electric
  • Dual Mode Operation (Manual, Autonomous)
  • Right-Hand Drive
Size 12m (Length) x 2.55m (Width) x 3m (Height)
Curb: 12,100 kg
Maximum: 15,500 kg
Drivetrain Linkker LinkDrive drivetrain:
180 kW Permanent Magnet Motor, max torque 7.824 Nm at rear wheels
Motor & invertor supplied by Danfoss Editron (model unknown)
Battery Lithium–titanate oxide batteries: 63.5kWh
Charged via an overhead pantograph with secondary plug-in charging capability
Bodywork ST Engineering / Gemilang Coachworks bodywork
Full Low Floor layout
Seating Capacity Configurable.
Default Configuration: 26 Seated, 54 Standing, 1 Wheelchair
Maximum Operating Speed Up to 50 km/h
3 Door Configuration
Operating Range Up to 50 km/charge, depending on operating scenarios
Charging Method
Connected Pantograph
Plug-In Connection (Optional)
Autonomous Capabilities
  • SAE Level 4 Autonomy
  • Designed for urban city traffic environment, normal and rain (up to 30mm/h) weather conditions
Additional Features
  • Gorba Electronic Display Signage
  • Masats door systems
  • Masats RT1 Dual Telescopic Ramp
  • Eberspächer air-conditioning
  • iris IRMA MATRIX Automatic Passenger Counting System (Entrance & Exit doors)
  • Ster NewCity Seats
  • TNT Surveillance Interior CCTVs
  • Door movement area sticker

The three-door prototype bus is manufactured with body panelling supplied from Gemilang Coachworks, and electric drivetrain components and chassis components from Linkker.


Passenger Cabin

The interior of the bus features 28 permanent seats. Being a low-floor bus, the bus offers step-free access along the entire length of the bus.

Grab poles and handgrips are located on both sides of the aisle. All seats also have hand grips to provide commuters with additional support. Metal stanchion poles and handlebars bear a brushed metal finish similar to that earlier used on the 3-door MAN Lion’s City SD Concept Bus.

Bus stopping bell-pushes are located around the bus cabin, either mounted to stanchion poles or on the pillars in-between windows. Emergency hammers are also located on these pillars.

Third Door

A third door at the rear allows commuters at the rear of the bus to exit more easily.

As an improvement over the MAN Lion’s City SD – 3-door Concept Bus, all exit doors are dual-leaf doors. The low-floor layout also negates the need for stairs leading to the exit door.

Wheelchair Bay

Wheelchair accessibility is offered via an automatic wheelchair ramp installed at the middle door (model: Masats RT1, similar to the MAN A95 trial). The STROBO Series 12 bus has one wheelchair bay located opposite the middle door, accommodating one passenger-in-wheelchair (PIW). An alighting bell for PIWs is located on the adjacent grab pole.

Beside the wheelchair bay is a standing area with four foldable seats.

Driver’s Compartment

The layout of the driver’s compartment is similar to that of the Linkker 12, with frequently-operated controls in close reach of thr driver. The dashboard interface also features the Linkker logo. A screen on the left is used as an interface to the autonomous driving system.

More pictures:

Air-conditioning and electronic display sign controllers are mounted on the roof.

More Photos & content on the next page…

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