Bus Contracting Model (BCM)

The Bus Contracting Model (BCM), is a contracting model for public bus services in Singapore.

The scheme was first announced in 2014, then called the Government Contracting Model (GCM). The main benefits touted by the BCM are its responsiveness to changes in ridership and commuter needs, as well as the injection of greater competition within the industry, thereby raising service levels for commuters over time.

The following parts will explain how the BCM works. Alternatively, they are summarised in this video by the Land Transport Authority (LTA).

Go-Ahead Singapore Training Buses at Punggol

With the Bus Service Operating Licenses (BSOL) for SMRT Buses and SBS Transit expiring on 31 August 2016, LTA took the opportunity to revamp the bus industry into a competitive tendering process. Elements of the scheme were adapted from contractual schemes used in other regions, such as Transperth (in Perth) and London Buses (in London).

In addition, the LTA has pursued a unified livery across all public buses in Singapore. Lush Green was chosen as the base colour, having been the preference of the majority of commuters through a public poll.

1. Background
Old Model
  • All operating assets (i.e. depots, buses) currently owned by both Government and Operators
  • Slow response in the improvement of service standards due to a profit-driven business model:
    • Bus operators earn revenue from fare collection, advertising, etc.
    • Profit used to cover capital and operating expenses, and earn returns
    • Bus operations geared towards reducing financial losses (buses are largely unprofitable as a whole, considering increasingly high bus operating costs, manpower costs and disproportionately low fares)
    • Unprofitable services often do not receive improvements
New Bus Contracting Model
  • LTA to own all* bus assets:
    Buses, bus depots, bus interchanges, fleet management systems, etc.
    * (except several assets such as buses and depots which are leased by SBS Transit / SMRT to LTA for availability fees)
  • LTA being the central bus planner, decides on bus services to be provided, and the service standards which operators have to meet
  • Bus operators will bid for bus route packages through a competitive tendering process, and be paid service fee (with incentives / disincentives; depending on performance) to operate the bus services.
  • All fare revenue will be retained by the Government and to ensure the affordability of public transport fares

Note:
* – Exceptions to LTA owning all bus assets and depots include:

  • SMRT-owned buses and Woodlands Depot – leased to LTA via availability fees
    (SMRT Group Review 2017)
  • SBS Transit’s fleet of close to 2,900 buses (in 2016) and Soon Lee Bus Depot – leased to LTA
  • SBS Transit Bedok North Bus Depot, Braddell Bus Park, Bukit Batok Bus Depot, Hougang Bus Depot, Ang Mo Kio Bus Depot
    (which remains as SBS Transit property as of SBS Transit 2017 Annual Report)
What are the new roles of bus operators?
  • Operate their allocated bus services in accordance with specified performance standards
  • Operate and maintain the buses and their onboard equipment (e.g. integrated driver fare console (IDFC) and fleet management equipment) as leased from the Government
  • Operate and maintain the Bus Interchanges and the new Bus Depot included in the Route Packages, including all equipment and systems provided therein
  • Charge and collect the fares approved by the Public Transport Council, for travel on the Route Package Bus Services allocated, on behalf of the Government
  • Provide bus service information at all bus stops and bus interchanges served by the Route Packages’ Services
  • Provide customer management services, such as lost and found service, and a hotline for commuter feedback and enquiries.
  • Continue to benefit from advertising revenue
  • Operating assets will be leased from Government to Bus Operator as stated in the contract which Bus Operator has been awarded
Incentive Framework (Performance Standards for Operators)

Incentive Framework to encourage it to provide quality bus services to commuters and carry out good maintenance of the assets provided by the Government. If the Operator meets the standards, it will receive a performance payment of up to 10% of its annual service fee. On the other hand, if the Operator does not meet the standards, up to 10% of its annual service fee will be deducted. The five performance indicators are in the areas of:-

  1. Bus service reliability, with indicators on Excess Wait Time (EWT) and On-Time Adherence taking reference from the Bus Service Reliability Framework
  2. First and last bus punctuality to ensure that commuters can board the first and last bus of the day
  3. Maintenance of the buses provided by LTA
  4. Maintenance of the Bus Interchanges and Bus Depot awarded under the Route Packages
  5. Maintenance of the Bus Ticketing System
What are the advantages of this system?
  • Strengthens the Government’s ability to respond more quickly to changes in travel demand and service level expectations
  • Bus operators to focus more on operating the bus services and meeting service standards
  • Lowering entry barriers, introducing more market competition leading to the provision of better bus services in a cost-competitive manner that will benefit commuters.
So how will commuters benefit?
  • A more responsive system that adapts to ridership patterns and commuter needs
  • Greater competition and efficiency within the bus industry
  • More reliable bus services with improved service levels
  • Less waiting time between buses

The contract model is currently in use in London and various Australian cities; their transport systems which LTA is modelling from. The Government is now able to directly subsidize bus operations to maintain better service levels, even if such levels of service are unprofitable.


2. Gradual transition to competitive tendering

In September 2016, bus services in Singapore were announced by the Land Transport Authority to be bundled into fourteen bus packages with about 300-500 buses each. The number of bus packages was previously announced to be twelve back in 2014 at the start of the Bus Contracting Model scheme. The contracts will last for five years, and can be extended by another two years with good performance.

With the negotiations with the incumbent operators (SBS Transit and SMRT) complete, the Bus Service Operating License (BSOL) for the remainder 11 packages not tendered out as of 2016 has been extended for 2-10 years, starting from 01 Sep 2016. After these negotiated contracts expire, the bus services in the 11 packages will be gradually tendered out.

This gradual, phased transition will allow LTA to refine and improve the management of contracts, as well as the tendering and handover process, and minimise the risk of service disruption.


3. Safeguarding the welfare of workers

Each new tender or change in contract for bus services can result in the movement of bus employees from one employer to another. To safeguard the welfare of the affected employees and ensure their smooth transition to the incoming operator, the Public Transport Tripartite Committee (PTTC) released the Guidelines on Good Employment Practices in the Public Bus Industry (the “Guidelines”) on 16 September 2014, detailing the obligations and responsibilities of both incoming and outgoing bus operators. These include the timeline for the offer of employment, recognition of the length of service, employment terms to be safeguarded, treatment of affected bus industry employees including those who choose to stay with the outgoing operator, as well as training for those who choose to join the incoming operator.

The three key assurances proposed by the PTTC are:

  1. All affected employees must be offered a job by the incoming operator;
  2. Affected employees must be offered employment terms which are not worse-off than what they have been enjoying before transition; and
  3. Affected employees can choose to join the new operator or be redeployed by their current employer, where feasible.

These employee aspects of the Guidelines have been incorporated into LTA’s tender documents, and will also be included in LTA’s subsequent contract with the Operator.


4. Higher Service Levels

With the transition to a bus contracting model, the Government intends to also raise bus service levels to beyond those of the expanded BSEP.

Current (Pre-BCM) Service Levels during 2-hour AM and PM Peak Periods:

  • About 30% of bus services operating at headway of no more than 10 minutes
  • 100% of bus services operating at headway of no more than 30 minutes

Expanded BSEP during 2-hour AM and PM Peak Periods

  • About 35% of bus services operating at headway of no more than 10 minutes
    100% of bus services operating at headway of no more than 20 minutes

Bus Contracting Model during 2-hour AM and PM Peak Periods

  • 50 or more % of bus services operating at headway of no more than 10 minutes
  • 100% of bus services operating at headway of no more than 15 minutes
  • All Feeder Services operating at intervals of 6 to 8 minutes.

As a result, an estimated 45% of bus services will have shorter intervals during peak periods when compared to the expanded BSEP service levels.


5. Tendering Process

All tender submissions will be evaluated by LTA through a 2-envelope process for quality and price with greater weightage given to the quality proposal submitted by the tenderers. This was evident when UK bus operator Tower Transit won the Bulim Bus Package despite offering the third lowest bid of $125.6 Million per year, in contrast to the lowest $93.7 Million per year bid from SMRT.

LTA awards route packages (tenders) based on “Gross Cost Model”. The Operator which the tender would be awarded will be required to set up a local company to operate the Route Packages, with senior management overseeing its operations to be based in Singapore for better oversight and accountability.

There will also be provisions for additional bus capacity in the contract which will enable the Government to make expeditious adjustments to the Route Packages when necessary, in response to changes in ridership and commuter needs.

During the contract period (5-7 years), the service fee which is the Operator’s bid price for the package, will be adjusted to better reflect the operating climate by taking into consideration inflation, changes in wage levels, and fuel costs.

Separately, the Operator will be able to tap the Bus Driver Training Grant for new bus drivers trained and deployed on the bus services from the date of award of contract to December 2016.

The Operator will be paid the service fee on a monthly basis with deductions for non-operated mileage that is within its control, such as driver absenteeism.

Tendering requirements

Among other requirements, bus operators bidding for the package must have a proven track record of operating a fleet of at least 250 buses.


Route Packages (TC):

Package Incumbent Operator Bus Services Anchor
Interchanges/
Terminals
Depot
Bulim
(28 Services)
Tower Transit
(since May 2016)
41, 49, 66, 77, 78, 79, 96, 97, 97e, 98/98M, 106, 143/143M, 173, 177, 183, 189, 282, 284, 285, 333, 334, 335, 941, 945, 947, 990 Bukit Batok, Jurong East Bulim Bus Depot
SMRT Buses
(Negotiated Contract)
944, 991 Kranji Bus Depot
Loyang
(28 Services)
Go-Ahead Group
(since Sep 2016)
2, 3, 6, 12, 12e, 15, 17/17A, 34, 36, 43/43M, 43e, 62, 68, 82, 83, 84, 85, 118, 119, 136, 354, 358, 359, 381, 382G/W, 386, 403, 518/518A Pasir Ris, Punggol Loyang Bus Depot
Seletar
(27 Services)
SBS Transit
(since Mar 2018)
24, 70/M, 71, 76, 130, 133, 135, 138, 162/M, 261, 262, 265, 268, 269, 800, 803, 804, 805, 806, 807, 811, 812, 850E, 851, 851e, 852, 860 Ang Mo Kio, Yio Chu Kang Seletar Bus Depot
Bukit Merah
(17 Services)
SBS Transit
(since Nov 2018)
5, 16, 57, 93, 120, 121, 122, 123/123M, 131/131M, 145, 160, 170/170A/170X, 195, 198, 272, 273, 400 Bukit Merah, HarbourFront, Kampong Bahru,
Marina Centre, Queen Street, Shenton Way
Ulu Pandan Bus Depot

Route Packages (NC):

Package Contract
Renewal
Year
Operator Bus Services Depot
(Predicted)
Sembawang–Yishun
(25 Services)
2020 SMRT Buses 167, 167e, 169, 171, 825, 853/853M, 854, 854e, 855, 856, 857, 858, 859, 882, 883, 963, 963e, 963R, 965, 966, 969, 980, 981, NR1, NR2 Mandai
Sengkang–Hougang
(30 Services)
2021 SBS Transit 27, 51, 80, 86, 87, 89, 89e, 102, 107/107M, 112, 113, 115, 116, 117, 132, 151, 151e, 153, 159, 161, 163, 165, 324, 325, 329, 371, 372, 374, 6N Hougang
SMRT Buses 110
Bedok
(23 Services)
2023 SBS Transit 9, 13, 14, 14e, 25, 30, 30e, 35/35M, 40, 42, 45, 46, 168, 196, 196e, 222, 225, 228, 229, 401, 506, CT18, 4N Bedok North
Choa Chu Kang–Bukit Panjang
(33 Services)
2023 SMRT Buses 61, 67, 75, 172, 176, 180, 184, 188, 188e, 188R, 190, 300, 301, 302, 307, 700, 868E, 920, 922, 927, 970, 971E, 972, 973, 975, 979, 982E, 983, 985, BPS1, NR3, NR8 Kranji
Tower Transit 974
Woodlands
(21 Services)
2023 SMRT Buses 178, 187, 900, 901/901M, 902, 903/903M, 904, 911, 912/912M, 913/913M, 925/925M, 926, 950, 951E, 960, 960e, 961/961M, 962, 964, NR5, NR6 Woodlands
Tampines
(27 Services)
2024 SBS Transit 4, 10, 10e, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 28, 29, 31, 37, 38, 39, 47, 65, 69, 72, 81, 127, 129, 291, 292, 293, 298, 513, 2N East Coast
Jurong West
(25 Services)
2024 SBS Transit 179, 181/181M, 182/182M, 185, 192, 193, 194, 199, 240/240M, 241, 242, 243, 246, 247, 248, 249, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 257, 258, 405 & 502/502A Soon Lee
Serangoon–Eunos
(23 Services)
2025 SBS Transit 11, 53/53M, 55, 58, 59, 60, 63/63M, 64, 90, 94, 101, 103, 105, 109, 134, 137, 140, 141, 150, 154, 158, 315, 317 Kim Chuan
Clementi
(25 Services)
2025 SBS Transit 7/7A/7B, 32, 33, 48, 74, 74e, 91, 92/92M, 95, 99, 100, 111, 147, 147e, 156, 166, 174, 174e, 175, 191, 197, 200, 201, 3N, 5N Bukit Batok
Bishan–Toa Payoh
(24 Services)
2026 SBS Transit 8, 21, 26, 50, 52, 54, 56, 73, 88, 124, 125, 128, 139/139M, 142, 155, 157, 186, 231, 232, 235, 238, 410, CT8, 1N Ang Mo Kio

TC = Tendered Contracts
NC = Negotiated Contracts


Changes to Bus Services:

Basic Bus Services:

With LTA being the central bus planner, it will continue to introduce new routes and amend current routes to suit the needs of commuters. While an overhaul of bus services is unlikely, several routes may be amended/split for better reliability. As more housing estates are being built, the number of basic services will only increase to suit new travel patterns.

An exception is cross-border services, where regular service standard indicators do not apply, owing to complex traffic conditions across the Causeway. Instead, they are measured based on the mileage fulfilled.

Basic-Plus Services:

Routings and operation hours of Fast-Forward services will be unchanged and tendered out along with the parent service, such as Service 97e tendered as part of the first Bulim Bus Package. However, the “Fast-Forward” branding from the SBS Transit days would be dropped, and they continue to charge Express fares. The “Fast-Forward” branding was subsequently standardised to “Express” in August 2018.

Chinatown Direct services are also retained and tendered out due to their popularity with residents.

Express, NightRider and Nite Owl services form part of the routes in various bus packages as well.

Premium Services:

As PTOs are gradually handing over Premium services to private bus operators, premium bus services will not be operated by public bus operators with BCM assets. They will be gradually be fully transferred to private operators, or continue to be operated by their non-franchised divisions (such as SMRT’s BusPlus charter division).


Taking over of buses

Main article: Transitioning of Buses to the Bus Contracting Model

LTA has initiated the BCM initially using buses destined for SBS Transit but registered under the Bus Service Enhancement Programme (BSEP). These buses, destined for service with SBS Transit fleet but owned by the Government, were rerouted to operators of the first few BCM packages such as Tower Transit, the initial operator of the Bulim Bus Package.

To further expand the BCM bus pool, the LTA said on 29 December 2015 that it would take over SBS Transit’s bus purchasing contracts worth S$164 million for 346 new bus purchases, scheduled for delivery in 2016 and 2017. It will also directly buy 50 buses, worth about S$23 million, which were delivered to SBST between June and December this year.

Among the 346 buses to be bought under the contracts, 100 are single-deck buses, while 246 are double-deck buses. 210 of these buses are scheduled for delivery in 2016, and the rest in 2017.

Among the 50 buses to be bought from SBS Transit, 12 are single-deck buses, while 38 are double-deck buses

In total, LTA will be buying 112 Mercedes-Benz O530 Citaro single-deck buses and 284 Volvo B9TL buses for the BCM, worth around S$187 million.


Milestone: Full transition

See: Bus industry completes transition to Bus Contracting Model


Advertising on Bus Contracting Model Buses


New Bus Services

With the completion of the Bus Service Enhancement Programme (BSEP) in Late 2017, new bus services continue to be launched under the Bus Contracting Model.

Operators of these new services receive additional service fee based on the additional mileage of the new bus services.

No. Date of Launch Operator Bus Service Bus Package
1 31 Oct 2017 SMRT Buses Bus Service 110 Sengkang – Hougang
(Negotiated Contract)
2 28 Jan 2018 Go-Ahead Bus Service 12e Loyang
3 28 Jan 2018 SBS Transit Bus Service 147e Clementi
25 Feb 2018 SBS Transit Short Trip Service 7A Clementi
25 Feb 2018 SBS Transit Short Trip Service 7B Clementi
12 Mar 2018 Go-Ahead Short Trip Service 2A Loyang
4 01 Apr 2018 Go-Ahead Bus Service 68 Loyang
5 08 Apr 2018 Tower Transit Bus Service 974 Choa Chu Kang – Bukit Panjang
(Negotiated Contract)
6 27 May 2018 SBS Transit Bus Service 851e Seletar
7 08 Jul 2018 SMRT Buses Bus Service 991 Bulim
(Negotiated Contract)
08 Jul 2018 SMRT Buses Short Trip Service 991A Bulim
(Negotiated Contract)
30 Sep 2018 SMRT Buses Short Trip Service 991B Bulim
(Negotiated Contract)
30 Sep 2018 SMRT Buses Short Trip Service 983A Choa Chu Kang – Bukit Panjang
8 28 Oct 2018 SMRT Buses Bus Service 960e Woodlands
29 Oct 2018 Go-Ahead Short Trip Service 386A Loyang
19 Nov 2018 SBS Transit Short Trip Service 160A Bukit Merah
9 25 Nov 2018 SMRT Buses Bus Service 167e Sembawang – Yishun
24 Dec 2018 SBS Transit Short Trip Service 142A
Bishan – Toa Payoh
13 Jan 2019 SMRT Buses Short Trip Service 973A Choa Chu Kang – Bukit Panjang
13 Jan 2019 Tower Transit Short Trip Service 974A Choa Chu Kang – Bukit Panjang
(Negotiated Contract)
14 Jan 2019 SBS Transit Short Trip Service 117A Sengkang – Hougang
10 Feb 2019 SBS Transit Short Trip Service 163A Sengkang – Hougang
25 Feb 2019 SMRT Buses Short Trip Service 169B Sembawang – Yishun
25 Feb 2019 SMRT Buses Short Trip Service 883B Sembawang – Yishun
11 Mar 2019 SBS Transit Short Trip Service 33B Clementi
11 Mar 2019 SBS Transit Short Trip Service 117B Sengkang – Hougang
17 Mar 2019 SMRT Buses Feeder Bus Service 913M
Woodlands
25 Mar 2019 Go-Ahead Short Trip Service 34B Loyang
25 Mar 2019 Go-Ahead Short Trip Service 85A Loyang
15 Apr 2019 SBS Transit Short Trip Service 116A Sengkang – Hougang
23 Jun 2019 SMRT Buses Feeder Bus Service 901M Woodlands
01 Jul 2019 Go-Ahead Short Trip Service 382A Loyang
10 09 Sep 2019 Go-Ahead Express Bus Service 43e Loyang

Purchase of New Buses

In 2015, LTA purchased 176 additional Volvo B9TL buses built to SBS Transit specifications. These buses were registered SG5000E – SG5175J, forming the first SG-prefix registered buses as part of the Bus Contracting Model.

In addition, LTA also purchased 60 MAN A95 buses (SG5740C – SG5799J) for the Bus Contracting Model in 2015. The last 10 units of these buses are equipped with USB Charging Ports, making them the first batch of public buses to feature USB Charging Ports.

In September 2016, LTA purchased another batch of 122 MAN A95 buses (SG5800M – SG5920A & SG2017C).

In late 2016, LTA also purchased another batch of 15 Alexander Dennis Enviro500 buses (SG5700T – SG5714D).

In 2017, LTA purchased 250 units of Euro 6 MAN A95 & MAN A22 buses under a negotiated Contract PT337 – Procurement of 250 MAN Buses. On top of this, an additional 150 units of Euro 6 MAN A95 buses were also purchased.

In October 2017, LTA awarded Contract PT313 – Procurement of Diesel Hybrid Buses (DHB) to Volvo East Asia (Pte) Ltd for the purchase of 50 Volvo 7900 Hybrid (Volvo B5L Hybrid) Buses.

In July 2018, LTA awarded Contract PT322 – Procurement of Euro 6 Double Deck Diesel Buses to ST Engineering Land Systems Ltd. for the purchase of 111 MAN A95 buses.

In December 2017, LTA put up a tender for Contract PT323 – Procurement of Electric Buses (E-Buses), with an order for 60 Electric Buses. 3 Tenderers were awarded.

  • BYD (Singapore) Pte Ltd – 20 Single-Deck Electric Buses
  • ST Engineering Land Systems – 20 Single-Deck Electric Buses
  • Yutong-NARI Consortium – 10 Single-Deck & 10 Double-Deck Electric Buses

In May 2018, LTA put up a tender for Contract PT342 – Procurement of 3-Door Euro 6 Double Deck Diesel Buses, with an order for 100 Double Decker buses. 2 Tenderers were awarded.

  • Alexander Dennis (Services) Singapore Pte Ltd – 50 3-Door Double Deck Buses
  • ST Engineering Land Systems – 50 3-Door Double Deck Buses

 


LTA News Releases (References)

  1. Transition to a Government Contracting Model For The Public Bus Industry  (24 May 14)
  2. First Bus Package Under The Government Contracting Model Up For Tender (03 Oct14)
  3. Second Bus Package under the Government Contracting Model to Be Put Up for Tender in Second Quarter of 2015 (11 Mar 15)
  4. LTA awards first tendered bus package to Tower Transit Group Limited (08 May 15)
  5. LTA to take over SBS Transit’s contracts for new bus purchases – Channel NewsAsia

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17 thoughts on “Bus Contracting Model (BCM)

  • 21 August 2019 at 2:08 AM
    Permalink

    In my honest opinion,LTA is favouring SBST way too much.Tower Transit shouldn’t be in SG in the first place.Should be replaced by RATP Asia which can also operate rail like GAS.
    Seletar Package should have been awarded to SMRT rather than SBST.
    Bus service also haywire.136 should be in Seletar.
    Clementi Shouldn’t be under Bulim but Boon Lay feeders yes.

    Seletar should be 24,25,130,133,135,136,138,261,262,269 for AMK Int,70,71,72,76,162/M,265 & 268 for YCK Int and 800,803,804,805,806,807,811,812,853/M,854,854e,857 & 860 for YIS Int.

    Bukit Merah should be
    96,99,282,284 & 285 for CLE Int,32 & 48 for BNV Ter,10 & 33 for KRE Ter,123,131/M,132,198,272 & 273 for BTM Int,123M & 124 for HBF Int,186 & 400 for SWY Ter,170 & 195 for QST & MCT Ter.

    Reply
  • 14 August 2019 at 4:21 PM
    Permalink

    I don’t want any new Operators anymore, GAS & TTS routes should all transfer back to SBS.(except 77,177,663,665,941,945,947,974 and 990, which will transfer to smrt.)

    Reply
  • 19 March 2019 at 1:13 AM
    Permalink

    About the depots, there are news reports about new bus depots in Sengkang and Kim Chuan MRT Depot, one of which would be replacing the current Hougang depot, if I remember correctly. Meanwhile, if I’m not wrong, there’s going to be a bus depot at the upcoming Jurong Region Line Tengah depot, which I believe would be replacing the Bulim bus depot which was originally constructed to be temporary, otherwise may be used by another bus package. As such, due to the possibility that the incumbents’ bus depots may be replaced with those built by the LTA, it may be better to remove all the depot names, except the Mandai depot which is confirmed, as they may not necessarily host the BCM packages when the BCM kicks in for the respective packages.

    Reply
    • 8 September 2019 at 2:43 PM
      Permalink

      Soon Lee will be replaced by Bulim Depot.
      Bukit Batok replacement might probably be Ulu Pandan Depot.
      Ulu Pandan bus services will move over to Southern corridor Depot.
      Braddell might be temporary close for refurbishment and all Comfortdelgro business will move to other location.My prediction Braddell will have at least 450 parking lots.
      Ang Mo Kio SBST might move to refurbished Braddell Depot.
      SMRT Ang Mo Kio will move to Mandai Depot.
      Woodlands Depot probably will have 500 capacity multi storey Depot.Bus Park will be demolished.
      Kranji replacement is Gali Batu Depot.
      Serangoon-Eunos package will be Kim Chuan Depot.
      Hougang will move to Sengkang West Depot.
      Bedok will be reconstructed and temporary will use Hougang Depot.
      Tampines package based in East Coast Depot.
      Loyang package might be reshuffled.
      Bulim package will be renamed as Tengah-Jurong East and will be based off Tengah Depot.

      All of this SBST still remain as the majority

      SMRT might get Mandai,Woodlands and probably either Jurong West or Tampines.

      TTS less chance to stay after contract expired and will be replaced by multi-modal operator.

      Go-Ahead also will be replaced by other operators.

      Reply

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