Kawasaki Heavy Industries & CRRC Qingdao Sifang C151A

Kawasaki Heavy Industries & CRRC Sifang C151A
SMRT C151A Train
SMRT C151A Train
In service May 2011 – Present
Manufacturer Kawasaki Heavy Industries with CRRC Sifang
Constructed 2010 – 2014
Number built 210 Vehicles (35 trainsets)
Formation 6 cars per trainset
Fleet number 501/502 – 569/570
Operators SMRT Trains
Depot(s) Bishan, Changi, Tuas and Ulu Pandan
Line(s) served North South Line & East West Line
Technical Data
Car body Aluminium-alloy double-skinned
Doors 8 per car
Electrification 750 V DC Third rail
Track gauge Standard Gauge (1435mm)

The Kawasaki Heavy Industries & CRRC Qingdao Sifang C151A is an electric multiple unit (EMU) train operating on the North South Line (NSL) and East West Line (EWL). Entering service in 2011, these were the fourth generation of rolling stock, purchased to increase the capacity of both lines by 15%.

Thirty-five trainsets comprising six cars each were procured in two batches, manufactured in Qingdao, China from 2010 to 2014 by a consortium of Kawasaki Heavy Industries and CRRC Sifang. 22 trains were delivered in 2011–2012, and 13 trains were delivered in 2013–2014.


Contract 151A (C151A) for the supply of 22 trainsets for the North South and East West Lines was initiated to complement the Jurong East Modification Project, which added an extra platform at Jurong East MRT Station for the faster turnaround of North South Line trains, thereby increasing the capacity of the line.

Awarded to a consortium of Kawasaki Heavy Industries and CSR Qingdao Sifang (now CRRC Qingdao Sifang) at an approximate value of S$368 million, these trains were built in Qingdao, China. The C151A contract was the first successful joint venture between these two companies. Despite tender competitor Hyundai Rotem Company’s offer of S$323 million, LTA chose to award the bid to Kawasaki Heavy Industries-CRRC Sifang after a comprehensive evaluation in hopes of better product quality.

In 2012, 13 additional trains were purchased by LTA under Contract 151A (Variation Order), bringing the total number of trains to 35. These additional trains were built to the exact same specifications and entered service in 2013–2014.

Each 6-car train is actually two 3-car trainsets coupled together, each comprising of a Driving Trailer (DT) and two Motor Cars (M1 and M2).


These trains entered revenue service on 27 May 2011, the same day the new North South Line (NSL) platform was opened at Jurong East as part of Jurong East Modification Project. Following the C751B and refurbished C151 trains, it was also painted in a scratch-resistant black base coat, with a central red stripe and lower grey band running the length of the train. Like the C751B, the front of the train was sloped to create a streamlined look. On the interior, each car featured a different colour scheme, namely fuchsia, cobalt blue and turquoise (and a lighter shade for the middle 3 seats), from each end to the middle cars. These trains were also fitted with the SMRT Active Route Map Information System (STARiS) at launch, with ceiling-mounted Vacuum Fluorescent Displays (VFD) displaying text and 8 active route maps mounted above every door in each car.

Between 2014 and 2015, all C151A trains were upgraded with Thales SelTrac Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC). Additional signalling equipment was installed at both ends of every train, replacing 2 seats at each end with a signal box.

Current Design

All C151A trains are comprised of six cars with open gangway connections between all cars. Each car has eight doors, four on each side. The interior features longitudinal seating in three colors: fuchsia, cobalt blue and turquoise from the end cars to the middle cars. Priority seats are located in every car, near the doors. All trains are equipped with STARiS, SMRT’s active route information system comprising ceiling-mounted textual displays and active route maps above every door.

For the interior, the trains have three-branched stanchion poles and three rows of handgrips. The poles were also fashioned in a larger diameter as compared to older trains. Two wheelchair bays are installed on every train, near doors 12 and 13.

Emergency Exits are located at both ends of every train, with a ramp that can be deployed in an emergency. Within the cabin, Emergency Communication Buttons are located at the side of the train doors, enabling passengers to speak with staff in an emergency. Fire extinguishers are also placed in every car.

Train Formation

A six-car trainset is formed of two three-car sets permanently coupled together. Each set comprises one driving trailer (DT) and two motor cars (M1 and M2). As such, the running configuration of a C151 trainset is DT–M1–M2–M2–M1–DT.

Every car is identified by a four-digit number ranging from x501 to x570, where the first digit x is a carriage identifier. The driving cab is 3, followed by the second car using 1 and the third car using 2. The last three digits refer to the 3-car trainset of which the train is comprised. SMRT’s 35 trains are actually 70 3-car trainsets coupled together in an even-odd arrangement, i.e. Set 501/502, Set 503/504 and on to Set 569/570.

As such, a sample Set 501/502 will contain the carriage numbers 3501-1501-2501-2502-1502-3502. Depending on the direction of travel, the sequence may be reversed.

All sets were co-built by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Rolling Stock Company and CRRC Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock Co., Ltd. Kawasaki was responsible for the overall project management, design, manufacturing of bogies and procurement of major components. CRRC Sifang was in charge of manufacturing the train cars, final fitting and assembly of complete MRT trains and factory testing. Kawasaki (Singapore) was responsible for the delivery of complete MRT trains to the depot, on-site testing and commissioning. According to the Kawasaki Technical Review (Issue 177) on Rolling Stock Engineering, this project structure was described as improving Kawasai’s competitiveness combining its technological capabilities with Sifang’s low-cost production capacity.

Full Specifications

Composition DT-M1-M2-M2-M1-DT
DT: Driving Trailer (unpowered); M1/M2: Motor car
UIC Classification 2’2′ + Bo’Bo’ + Bo’Bo’ + Bo’Bo’ + Bo’Bo’ + 2’2′
Number built 210 cars (35 trains)
Manufacturer Kawasaki Heavy Industries / CRRC Qingdao Sifang
Electric traction control IGBT-VVVF Inverter Control (Fuji Electric) with Regenerative Braking
Traction motor Three-Phase AC Induction Motor (Fuji Electric)
Power output 2,240 kW (combined)
Transmission WN Drive coupling
Acceleration 1.0 m/s2
Deceleration 1.2 m/s2 (service);  1.3 m/s2 (emergency)
Auxiliary power IGBT–VVVF Auxiliary Inverter with battery charger
Electrification 750V DC (nominal) from third rail
Gauge Standard gauge (1435mm)
Maximum Speed 90km/h (design);  80km/h (service)
Braking system Dynamic braking, Electronically controlled pneumatic brakes
Safety system Current: Thales SelTrac® Moving Block CBTC ATC with subsystems of ATO GOA 3 (DTO), ATP, NetTrac ATS, CBI
Past: Westinghouse Brake and Signal Company Ltd fixed block ATC with subsystems of ATO GOA 2 (STO), ATP, ATS
Coupling system Scharfenberg
Track gauge Standard gauge (1,435 mm)
Car body Aluminium-alloy double-skinned construction
Length 139m (6 car train) — 23.83m (DT); 22.80m (M1/M2)
Width 3.2 m
Height 3.7 m
Weight 226.8t (unladen);  335.9 t (laden)
Doors 1.45 m wide, 8 per car, 4 per side
Seats 292 seats (6 car train)

Accidents & Incidents

On 29 Jan 2014, Set 549/550 derailed within Bishan Depot while undergoing testing. It was unclear how the incident occurred.

See Also: China-made MRT trains recalled due to cracks

On 5 July 2016, Hong Kong-based watchdog journalism outlet Factwire reported that 26 out of 35 China-made C151A trains have been recalled due to cracks. These six-car trains, totalling 156 cars, were found to have cracks in the structure connecting the car body and the bogie after they were delivered in 2013. Details of the defects and the recalls have been kept secret in both Singapore and China.

C151A trains at CSR Sifang factory (Photo: Factwire)
C151A trains at CRRC Sifang factory (Photo: Factwire)

In the saga that followed, the issue became a talking point among many Singaporeans over the quality of Chinese-made vehicles, many criticizing the Government’s decision to purchase China-made trains when European and Japanese-made trains have been operating reliably on the North South and East West Lines since their introduction in the late 1980s. It also came as a surprise to many that a foreign news outlet would break news of such public interest while SMRT and LTA had been keeping mum about these problems.

Later, LTA clarified that defective trains were being shipped back to China — one at a time — for repairs from July 2014 for the replacement of the entire car-body shell under warranty, including the cost of transport to and from China. As of July 2016, five trains have been fixed and returned to service while a sixth train was undergoing repair works. The repair process takes four-months per train car, and rectification work is expected to be completed in 2019.

Collision at Joo Koon MRT Station

On 15 November 2017 at 0820hrs, trainsets 535/536 & 547/548 collided at Joo Koon MRT Station under the new signalling system.

Main Article: MRT Trains Collide at Joo Koon


See Also:

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