An Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS), also referred to as a Collision Warning System (CWS), refers to a broad group of safety systems that improve driving safety by tackling human error, the leading cause of vehicle accidents.
On Singapore buses, ADAS systems are non-intervening, i.e. they only provide audio/visual alerts to the driver, and do not take over control of the vehicle in any way. These ADAS systems typically offer the following functionalities:
- Pedestrian & vehicle proximity alerts
- Headway distance monitoring
- Speed limit indicator
- Blind-spot monitoring
Different ADAS systems offer different degrees of functionality, and some are bundled with telematics capabilities as well. The most common models in use are varieties offered by Streamex (distributed by TNT Surveillance), Mobileye, ST Engineering, and Continental Automotive.
Recent years have also seen the prevalence of Surround View Camera Systems. These systems use a set of externally-mounted cameras around the bus (at least 4) to generate a top-down image of the bus in real-time, significantly improving blind spot monitoring. Different viewing angles can be generated depending on how the system is setup; for example, the TNT Surveillance model pivots the viewing angle depending on whether the blinkers are activated.
The Land Transport Authority (LTA) is responsible for bus procurement and its specifications since the start of the Bus Contracting Model (BCM). While several types of ADAS systems have been trialled in the mid-2010s, the LTA made ADAS a mandatory requirement for buses procured starting in late 2017. Both the LTA and individual bus operators have also retrofitted ADAS systems to existing buses since the late 2010s and early 2020s.
Anti-Fatigue Systems, which detect and counter driver fatigue, are covered in a separate article.
SBS Transit was the first Public Bus Operator to introduce ADAS systems on its fleet in November 2014 starting with the Mobileye 560 installed on 30 buses. It would later embrace the technology and equip nearly 3,000 buses with the technology by end-2018.
From LTA’s standpoint, it is hypothesized that the merits of the technology were accepted and eventually adopted into its requirements for its bus procurement. As a result, ADAS systems are a mandatory requirement for buses procured starting from late 2017. By making ADAS systems a part of the bus (and hence an LTA-owned asset), the burden of system maintenance could be streamlined and passed from individual bus operators to appointed contractors under warranty or other forms of contractual agreement, if any.
Under the BCM, operators have also retrofitted ADAS on their fleet, such as SBS Transit when it clinched the Seletar and Bukit Merah bus packages, and Tower Transit which installed 360-degree camera systems on all Sembawang–Yishun Bus Package buses. Since buses remain the assets of LTA, it remained to be seen if operator-retrofitted ADAS systems would be uninstalled when ownership of buses is transferred between LTA/operators.
ADAS Systems in use
Mobileye 560 / Mobileye 630
|Model||Mobileye 560 (older) / Mobileye 630 (newer)|
|Functionality||Headway measurement, Pedestrian & Vehicle collision alert, Lane Departure Warning
Speed limit alert (Mobileye 630 only)
|Buses||Most SBS Transit Buses, SMRT Training Buses, some Go-Ahead Singapore buses, SG5999Z, SG4002G|
The Mobileye 560 and Mobileye 630 Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) alerts drivers to vehicles, pedestrians and cyclists on the roads, while also featuring a lane departure warning. It is the basic Mobileye system installed across many buses. In addition, the system offers Fleet Management System (FMS) integration allowing for Intelligent Event Data Recording (EDR), and connectivity abilities with other external devices using Bluetooth wireless technology.
The system comprises a windshield-mounted Vision Sensor Unit (containing a camera and an image processor), a buzzer and a dashboard-mounted EyeWatch Display Unit for visual directional warnings and numerical headway measurement display.
The newer Mobileye 630 offers similar functionalities but elements on the Display Unit are indicated differently.
In a May 2016 press release, SBS Transit announced that 750 buses would be installed with Mobileye 560 system by that year, and more than 3,000 buses would be equipped with it by the end of Year 2018, with the eventual goal of fleet-wide implementation. Starting from 2018, a newer model (Mobileye 630) was installed instead of the Mobileye 560.
Background Data collection
In addition to real-time alerts presented to BCs, the Mobileye system also records additional parameters that are logged and uploaded to a cloud server. This enables SBS Transit to monitor every instance of dangerous driving behaviour across all buses installed with the system. As such, Mobileye also functions as a telematics system.
Main Article: Mobileye collision alert system
|Functionality||Pedestrian & Vehicle sideswipe collision alert (As an add-on to the Mobileye 560 / 630)|
|Buses||Volvo B5LH, Volvo B8L, MAN A95 3-Door Concept Bus (SG5999Z)
Small number of SBS Transit buses: Mercedes-Benz Citaro, Volvo B9TL, Scania K230UB
The Mobileye Shield+ Collision Avoidance System is an improvement of the existing Mobileye 560 and Mobileye 630, with two additional cameras installed at the rear of the bus. Covering both the left and right sides of the vehicle, drivers are alerted to cyclists, pedestrians and motorcyclists within their blind spot while making a turn. These are connected to two additional large-sized display units mounted near the left and right rearview mirrors, easily seen by Bus Captains when they glance at their mirrors.
The Mobileye 560 as described in the above section is also a part of the Mobileye Shield+ system. Using a windscreen-mounted camera and dashboard display unit, it alerts drivers to vehicles, pedestrians and cyclists on the roads, while also featuring a lane departure warning. As such, the Mobileye Shield+ system utilises a total of 3 cameras.
The system was first installed on an SBS Transit Mercedes-Benz Citaro (SBS6650K) in January 2017 for a six-month trial and has since been also installed on SG4003D and SG5999Z.
The Mobileye 560, Mobileye 630 and Mobileye Shield+ systems are developed by Mobileye, an Israeli technology company founded in 1999.
Main Article: Mobileye collision alert system
ST Engineering DriveSafe Intelligent Warning System
|Model||ST Engineering DriveSafe Intelligent Warning System|
|Functionality||Pedestrian & Vehicle collision alert (all sides), blinker lights and buzzers, overhead collision alert (formerly)|
|Buses||MAN A22, MAN A95, Linkker LM312|
The DriveSafe system by ST Engineering (formerly known as the Integrated Smart Advanced Warning Unit, or I-SAW-U) comprises four camera sensors and two ultrasonic sensors. When a vehicle, cyclist or pedestrian approaches the bus, the camera sensors detect them as obstacles. An alarm will sound and the location of the obstacle will be displayed visually on a new screen installed in the Driver’s Cockpit. DriveSafe also provides alerts if the bus is travelling too close to a vehicle in front, if a pedestrian steps in front of the bus, or if the bus captain strays off his lane.
The screen reflects two levels of alerts based on the proximity of the obstacle: an amber alert when the obstacle is 1m away, and a red alert when the obstacle is between 0.5m to 0.8m away from the bus. These thresholds can be redefined in the future. In addition, the two ultrasonic sensors mounted on the roof of the bus are able to detect and warn drivers if they are about to hit an overhead obstacle (this feature was later removed).
Finally, DriveSafe also comes with additional features, such as blinker lights and buzzers mounted outside the bus, which can alert other road users, such as cyclists, if they are riding too close to the buses. These will be activated later during the trial.
An initial six-month trial was conducted in April 2018, with 20 public buses being equipped with the system, namely MAN A22 (SBS Transit & Tower Transit – 5 units each), and MAN A95 (SMRT & Go-Ahead – 5 units each).
Production batch Euro 6 MAN A22 and MAN A95 buses also received the system.
Main Article: ST Engineering DriveSafe Intelligent Warning System
TNT Surveillance T-FA Front Alert Camera & T-SA Side Alert Camera
|Model||T-FA Front Alert Camera | T-SA Side Alert Camera
|Functionality||T-FA Front Alert Camera:
Lane departure warning system, forward collision warning, distance monitoring & pedestrian detection
T-SA Side Alert Camera:
Side blind spot detection for pedestrians or cyclists
BYD K9, Yutong E12, Yutong E12DD, Mercedes-Benz Citaro hybrid, Alexander Dennis Enviro500 (3 Door)
MAN A22 (Euro V / Euro VI); MAN A95 (Euro VI), ADL Enviro500, Volvo B9TL (Wright), Mercedes-Benz Citaro
The T-FA Front Alert Camera is a windscreen-mounted camera connected to a dashboard display unit (T-Watch). It alerts drivers to vehicles, pedestrians and cyclists in front of the bus, while also offering lane departure warning.
The T-SA Side Alert Cameras are installed at the rear of the bus, connected to a dashboard display unit (T-Watch). Covering both the left and right sides of the vehicle, drivers are alerted to cyclists, pedestrians and motorcyclists within their blind spot while making a turn.
Both the T-FA Front Alert Camera and T-SA Side Alert Camera belong to the TNT Surveillance T-Guard Driver Management System. Other tools offered as part of T-Guard include an Anti-Fatigue System (T-DA), telematics system (T-SEEDS) and a fleet management dashboard.
Continental Automotive Camera System (Model Unknown)
|Buses||SG5012X (Tower Transit Volvo B9TL, trial)|
360-degree Surround View Camera systems in use
TNTS T-A.I. 360° Surround View Camera System
|Model||TNTS T-A.I. 360°|
|Functionality||Real-time Surround View Camera System – Display unit with Proximity alert|
|Buses||Tower Transit buses under the Sembawang–Yishun Bus Package:
(BYD C6, MAN A22 (Euro V), MAN A22 (Euro VI), Mercedes-Benz OC500LE, Volvo B5LH, Alexander Dennis Enviro500, Alexander Dennis Enviro500 (3 Door), MAN A95 (Euro V), MAN A95 (Euro VI), MAN A24
Footage from four cameras mounted on the bus (front, rear, left and right sides) are composed to form a top-down view of the vehicle in real-time. The system enhances the driver’s situational awareness on the roads and assists with blindspot monitoring. The display screen is typically mounted in the centre of the dashboard, but some vehicles have the screen mounted on the top of the driver’s cab (e.g. Mercedes-Benz OC500LE).
When the left or right blinkers are activated, the camera view pans in the same direction (see above image) for enhanced blindspot monitoring.
The display screen can be alternatively configured to show a live feed of any one of the cameras, with some buses observed to be displaying a feed of just the front or rear view camera.
Continental Automotive ProViu ASL360 Surround View Camera System
|Model||Continental Automotive ProViu ASL360|
|Functionality||Real-time display with Proximity alert|
|Buses||3-door MAN Lion’s City SD (SG4002G), SBS3337K (Tower Transit Volvo B9TL, trial)|
Four cameras mounted on the bus (front, rear, left and right sides) generate a top-down view of the vehicle in real-time, with visual and audio alerts if the bus approaches too close to other road objects. The system enhances the driver’s situational awareness on the roads and assists with blindspot monitoring.
Smart-Vision Rearview Cameras
|Model||Vision Systems Smart-Vision|
|Functionality||Real-time display, blind-spot display|
|Buses||SMRT MAN A22 (SMB1316T)|
Four cameras mounted on the bus (2 cameras on the left and right sides) generate a full side view of the vehicle in real time, inclusive of the blind spots of the bus. The system performs very well in low-light conditions, offering much-improved visual clarity as compared to viewing from regular mirrors which enhances the driver’s situational awareness on the roads.
Main Article: SmartVision Rearview Cameras trialled on buses
See also: Anti-Fatigue Systems
External Links & References:
Back to Buses
2 thoughts on “Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) for buses”
Everytime, I take any Single Decker Bus have Mobileye Installed, I always can’t sit Infornt?
Very Irritating with these Noisy Mobileye installed on SBST Single Deck Buses?
something new is installed on SG5012X, unsure of model but it is an ADAS