|Manufacturer||BYD Auto Industry|
|Years in operation||2022—Present|
|Motor||BYD AC Synchronous Motor|
|Battery||BYD Blade LFP Battery (433.45 kWh)|
|Emission Standard||Zero tailpipe emissions|
The BYD B12 is an electric single-deck city bus offered by Chinese bus manufacturer BYD Auto Industry (比亞迪). As of 2022, it is BYD’s latest flagship model of electric city bus, superseding the highly successful BYD K9.
Local private bus operator ComfortDelGro Bus procured a fleet of ten BYD B12 electric buses for use on campus shuttle bus routes at NUS and NTU (model designation: BYD B12A03). These buses are configured as full-low-floor buses with three doors. Another BYD B12A03 bus was exhibited at the Singapore International Transport Congress and Exhibition (SITCE) 2022 with a slightly different interior layout, being more similar to buses built to LTA specifications.
See also: Electric Buses in Singapore
BYD’s ‘B-series’ electric bus range was launched on 29 July 2020, comprising the single-deck BYD B10 and BYD B12 of 10 and 12-metre lengths, and the BYD B12D 12-metre double-deck bus. These new buses supersede their older K-series counterparts, the longest-running of which was the BYD K9, which was first launched in 2010 and had found tremendous success in both domestic and overseas markets, including previous deliveries to Singapore.
According to BYD, numerous technical improvements were made to improve efficiency, such as new-generation wheel hub motors which are 6% more energy efficient, and a lightweight aluminium body frame that reduces vehicle weight by 10%. Upgraded traction batteries are paired with a new battery management system with improved monitoring capabilities. All traction batteries are also water-cooled to an optimal working range of 25~35°C, preserving the operating range between charges and battery longevity.
BYD also touts ergonomic improvements for both drivers and passengers. The driver’s cab features a digital dashboard with integrated controls and comes with comfort features such as ventilated seats with massage features. The passenger cabin has window areas increased by 10% with fewer stanchion poles in the way of passenger movement, and can also be configured with a sunroof for more light transmission. Finally, BYD offers driver assistance features such as EPAM (pedal misapplication assistance system), collision detection and lane departure warnings, driver fatigue monitoring, and so forth.
Outside of China, 30 buses were delivered to the TransJakarta bus network in Jakarta. Hong Kong bus operator Kowloon Motor Bus also took delivery of 16 BYD B12A units in late 2021.
BYD Blade Battery
The BYD B12A03 model is also the first BYD bus to be equipped with BYD’s proprietary Blade battery. Unveiled in 2020, it uses Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) chemistry and is optimized for energy density and safety.
Given its optimized battery pack structure, the space utilization of the battery pack is increased by over 50% compared to conventional lithium iron phosphate block batteries. BYD also demonstrated the battery in extreme conditions, such as nail penetration, crushing, heating and overcharging, none of which resulted in a thermal runaway (fire or explosion).
BYD’s existing presence in Singapore includes 20 BYD K9 (Gemilang) buses procured by LTA with another BYD K9RC double-deck prototype unit on trial with LTA. ComfortDelGro also operates two BYD coaches, a BYD C9 and a BYD C8.
As for the broader electric bus market in Singapore, the Land Transport Authority is rapidly electrifying the public bus fleet. Half of all public buses will be electric by 2030, which is about 3,000 buses.
The BYD B12A03 bus was put on static display at:
- National University of Singapore (NUS) University Town on 31 Oct 2022 & 1 Nov 2022, organised by NUS’ Campus Services team
- LTA-UITP Singapore International Transport Congress & Exhibition (SITCE) 2022, held at Suntec Singapore Convention & Exhibition Centre in November 2022
ComfortDelGro Bus orders
Private bus operator ComfortDelGro Bus secured multi-year operating contracts from both the National University of Singapore (NUS) and Nanyang Technological University (NTU) in November 2021 and February 2022 respectively, for the provision of campus shuttle bus services at both universities.
ComfortDelGro Bus procured 10 units of the BYD B12A03 single-deck bus, configured with three passenger doors. Both campuses will be receiving these BYD buses, but the exact breakdown of buses deployed at each campus is unknown.
As part of these contracts which take effect in late 2022, ComfortDelGro Bus will gradually introduce electric buses to the shuttle bus routes. While a rollout timeline has not been provided, all buses serving both campuses will eventually be replaced with electric ones, which is about 50 buses. BYD B12 buses were only a part of this bulk order, as Zhongtong LCK6126EVG buses were also procured alongside these BYD buses.
According to requirements announced by both universities, buses will be wheelchair accessible and equipped with a telematics system, an anti-fatigue system, and a forward collision and side collision warning system. A mobile app will offer access to real-time information on bus location along the route, arrival time, and passenger occupancy rate.
Registration of these buses commenced on 4 November 2022. They were deployed on NUS ISB routes from 21 November 2022.
- PD564D, PD577S, PD629B, PD649T & PD660J
(Registered on 4 Nov 2022)
(Registered on 14 Nov 2022)
|BYD B12A03 – ComfortDelGro specifications
||Length x Width x Height: 11980 mm x 2550 mm x 3270 mm
Curb Weight: 13,500 kg
Max Gross Weight: 18,850 kg
||BYD Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (×2)
Maximum power/torque of 300 kW (150 kW × 2) / 1100 Nm (550 Nm × 2) )
Regenerative braking capabilities + Front and rear disc brakes
||BYD Blade battery (Capacity 433.45 kWh)
Lithium Iron Phosphate chemistry; liquid-cooled with BTMS
Charged via 130kW×2 DC plug-in chargers (CCS Type 2 connector)
2-3 hours full charge
||BYD Integral bodywork (Lightweight aluminium structure)|
|EDS||Kabym Electronic Display Sign
Coloured LED Matrix; Mounted on Front, Left side, and Rear
|PIDS||Kabym Passenger Information Display System
Coloured LED text displays, LCD display screens & interior speakers
|APCS||iris IRMA MATRIX Automatic Passenger Counting System|
|Driver Assistance||Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS):
– Movon MRV-21 ADAS (forward-facing camera + display unit)
– 360 Degree Surround View (4x exterior cameras + driver display screen) – OEM unknown
– Movon MDSM-7 Anti-Fatigue system
|Terminal||Kabym AL-K80 multifunction terminal
• Fleet management & GPS locator functions
• Controls EDS, PIDS, and en-route announcements
• Driver touchscreen display
|Passenger Capacity||22 Seated + 66 Standing = 88 Passengers
2 Wheelchair Bays
|Other Specifications||• Ster 8MI seats
• Ventura doors
• USB Charging Ports
• Aircharge Nylon wireless surface chargers
Overview & Exterior
The BYD B12 is built by BYD in Hangzhou (China) and delivered completely built-up to Singapore.
The exterior design features a streamlined roof element where traction batteries and air-conditioning components are integrated. According to BYD, the coefficient of wind resistance is lower than 0.45, which can effectively reduce the energy consumption of the whole vehicle by 1%-2%. The lightweight aluminium body makes the bus 300-500 kg lighter than electric buses of similar size and range.
These buses are fitted with full-colour Electronic Display Sign (EDS) units. Supplied by Chinese manufacturer Kabym, these are used for colour-coding of various NUS Internal Shuttle Bus routes for easy recognition. An exterior-facing Passenger Information Display System is also provided, displaying upcoming bus stops.
The full-low-floor design with three passenger doors is enabled by the bus’ compact electric drivetrain, with the rear drive axle powered by two 150 kW direct-drive in-axle motors. For deployments at NUS, the hilly terrain is also well-suited to the strengths of electric buses, with their high starting torque and regenerative braking capabilities.
On top of performance benefits, zero tailpipe emissions of electric buses also benefit the quality of air on campus. NUS estimates that electrification of the Internal Shuttle Bus fleet potentially reduces CO2 emissions by up to 153 tons each year.
The BYD B12 is a low-floor single-deck bus, offering step-free access across the entire length of the bus. It features a three-door configuration, with an entrance door at the front, an exit door in the middle, and a second exit door at the very rear of the bus.
Like other ISB buses deployed at NUS (Volvo B9L and Zhongtong LCK6126EVG), the interior design prioritizes standing space, given the mostly short-haul trips undertaken on campus shuttle buses. There are only 22 seats, but a licensed standing capacity for 66 more passengers.
The interior design strongly resembles that of Yutong E12 electric buses purchased by the Land Transport Authority (LTA) and Yutong ZK6126HGA buses purchased by Woodlands Transport. These buses use the same grey floorboard design with crescent patterns, and seats are all supplied by Ster in similar blue colours.
The bus features two wheelchair bays, both located opposite the exit door. They each accommodate one passenger-in-wheelchair (PIW). Foldable handlebars and a stroller restraint system are provided for wheelchair users and the securing of prams respectively, mirroring similar features on LTA-procured buses.
Third Door area
The three-door bus design promotes the one-way flow of passengers towards the rear of the bus, allowing for faster boarding and alighting. The BYD B12 comes with a wide double-leaf rear door for greater ease of alighting from the rear.
The bus could have been built with the intention of having an additional pair of seats mounted on the rear platform, as evidenced by the floor step and an additional USB charging port behind the final row of seats. This platform is now closed off with extra handlebars.
Passenger Information Display System
The bus is installed with a Passenger Information Display System, with LCD screens and LED text displays facing inside and outside the bus.
SITCE 2022 Display Bus
A BYD B12A03 bus was also displayed at the LTA-UITP Singapore International Transport Congress & Exhibition (SITCE) 2022, which was held at Suntec Singapore Convention & Exhibition Centre from 2 – 4 November 2022.
This BYD B12A03 bus bears a promotional dark blue-themed livery promoting the bus’ technical specifications.
The interior of this bus is configured more closely to the average public bus in Singapore. The bus keeps two wheelchair bays and forgoes the nearside standing area seen in the ComfortDelGro specification, replacing it with two pairs of transverse seats, for a total of 28 seats.
The seats could be be the Ster 8MA model instead, given the larger seat cushion size. All aisle seats come with folding armrests.
A floor step is provided for passengers accessing the last row of seats, despite them being positioned at the same height as the facing seats in front of it.
Each wheelchair backrest features a deployable handlebar and a foldable seat. The handlebar mechanism is different from the universal joint mechanism on ComfortDelGro buses, using a more refined lift-and-rotate mechanism similar to those used on the MAN A95 (3-Door) and CRRC C12, both bodied by Gemilang Coachworks.
The dashboard appears similar to the ComfortDelGro units. It is also fitted with a Kabym multifunction terminal on the left for the control of the EDS and PIDS subsystems.
- Linkker LM312 – another 3-door electric bus on Singapore roads
- CRRC TEG6125BEV03 – another 3-door electric bus on trial in Singapore
- LexSWITCH E12 SD -another 3-door electric bus displayed at SITCE 2022
- 60 Electric Buses procured by LTA
- Electric Buses in Singapore
Other Privately-operated Electric Buses:
- B12 全新12米纯电动巴士 以卓越实力演绎都市风情 – 车辆详情页 (byd.com)
- 新造型、新技术，持续引领商用车，全新比亚迪纯电动客车亮相 (baidu.com)
- 升级岂止是外观？比亚迪全新一代客车B12解密|车顶|家族化_网易订阅 (163.com)
- Electric Bus | KMB’s new domestic BYD single-deck electric bus arrives in Hong Kong, the world’s first B12A right-handed version – The Limited Times (newsrnd.com)
- Thirty Electric Buses Hit the Streets of Jakarta (jakartaglobe.id)
- BYD’s New Blade Battery Set to Redefine EV Safety Standards – BYD USA
- Company Profile – BYD Singapore